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One of the last predynastic kings, associated with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt (3000 B.C.). Narmer is believed to have come from Hierakonpolis, ca pital and shrine city of Horus in the footsteps of Scorpion and others who tried to subdue the Delta. The actual unification of Egypt was not accomplished until the close of the 2nd Dynasty (c. 2640 B.C.).

A palette discovered at Hierakonpolis depicts Narmer's efforts. A ceremonial mace-head, also discovered in that city, depicts Narmer as capturing 120,000 men, 400 oxen, 1,422,000 goats, and the standards of the Delta nomes. After his victory, Narmer is believed to have married a Memphite aristocrat in order to consolidate his gains. Queen Neithotpe was possibly that noble heiress. She is named in some lists as the mother of 'Aha (called menes), the first king.

Narmer sent an expedition into the eatern desert and his inscription was discovered on the rocks of the Wadi El-Qash, on the Coptos trade route. He is believed to have been buried at Saqqara, or possibly in the necropolis at Tarkhan. A cenotaph bearing his insignia was discovered in Abydos.

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